Cultural Heritage


Since the beginning of Western Civilization—
indeed, in a manner of speaking, its progenitor—
Dramatic Art has both reflected and affected
who we’ve been (and are) and what we’ve said and done
in every aspect of our lives


There are three elements of this discussion, all examined and explored :

    1. the importance role of dramatic literature,
    2. the powerful effects of dramatic performance, and
    3. the historical context, which over the centuries has evolved into our cultural heritage.

Drama Lit

pertains especially to Cold Reads, through the playwrights’ words. It argues that all literary art is Poetry or Prose (or Drama)—in parentheses because it’s written to be seen and heard; and since we don’t attend theatrical performances, unless we read great plays, we don’t “Know Drama.”

The Wholly Human Art

emphasizes the emotional power of the Wholly Human Art on stage, compares it to religion, distinguishes it from other forms of art and entertainment, and examines instances when playwrights’ plays turned the world upside down.

Drama through Time

explores the role of plays throughout our 2,500-year evolution, from their roots in Ancient Athens to the latest Broadway smash, revealing their love/hate relationship with Theism and the secular Powers That Be.

The following links open essays on these elements, with further links to related posts.

For the first two thousand years of Western Civilization, the only literary art most people knew was what they saw and heard performed—they couldn’t read. From the Ancient Greeks to long past Shakespeare, what the hoi polloi understood of the world and human nature—and of language, it’s evocative power—they learned from actors playing roles on stage in a world imagined by the greatest writers of their times.

Even after the printing press, books were dear and rare, and the masses remained illiterate until the Industrial Revolution, when they started reading novels. Meanwhile, they continued to see plays on stage—until movies came along and swept them under the rug.

Since then, although few people attend (especially in the US), many thousands of plays have been produced  In Europe, dramatists continued to produce significant works

Since then the few Americans who go to the theatre

The Wholly Human Art

This argument makes the case for the notion that of all the ways we human beings spend our idle time, only Drama, live on stage, is quintessentially humanpeople playing people in a world imagined by a person and constructed by a crew of people, telling stories about people, doing things those people do, to entertain and benefit an audience of people.

It also explains the transcendental magic that happens when a well-made play’s well-played, and we willingly suspend our disbelief, allowing actors in the here and now to be transformed as other people somewhere else. In this regard, it’s like religious faith—forsooth; it sprang from pagan rites; in sooth, in function, form, and purpose, they remain the same. The one distinction is focus: one on God, the other Humankind.

It’s also like spectator sports—the emotional. adrenal surge when our team scores a goal. Or like a high school prom, a funeral or wedding, a political campaign—name any real-life drama and compare it to theatrical performance. The only difference is the focus.

When a well-made play’s well-played, it sinks into our collective conscience, and it takes us all into another world, where life has meaning; we’re mesmerized, and we walk away more human than we were.

Drama through Time

“Those who don’t know history are doomed to repeat it.”

If we are to have a future, we must understand our our past. We must know, for  instance, that dramatic art emerged from Greek religion and became the voice of Athenian democracy; that it was banned by the Catholic Church for nine hundred years years and then (ironically) revived and embraced by that same church to attract lost souls to mass; that it overflowed into the streets, secularized, and blossomed into Shakespeare; that there was no theatre at all in America until the early Eighteenth Century, and it only found its voice in Eugene O’Neill.

And then came movies.

These instances and many more are outlined below. Related posts provide a deeper insight into the significance of theatre in western civilization.

Ancient History

In 534 BC, Thespis stepped away from religious ritual to speak solo lines in character, creating theatre, used by religion and the state to create Greek democracy in 509 and usher in the Golden Age, chronicle and protest its decline and fall over the next two centuries to devolve in form and (censored) substance by the and of the Fourth Century, just before the rise of Rome.

Roman plays—copies of these lesser Greeks—were first performed in 240 BCE, to honor Jupiter, and while they were Republican (and pre-Christian), they paid homage to the gods; but with the (ironically) simultaneous reversals (First Century CE) to the decadent Empire and the Resurrection, theatre too descended into spectacular extravaganzas and street performers, playing tragic gore and greed, revenge, ambition, jealousy, and comic irony, buffoonery, directed at the new, preposterous religion.

Dark Ages

The tide turned slowly over the next three centuries as the Empire spread, decayed, and Christianity gained enough respect for the Emperor Constantine to convert (312 CE), and for the Emperor Theodosius to outlaw the practice of any other religion (393), ban all plays, and excommunicate all actors and producers for the next 600 years.

Church Plays

Ironically, it was that church that revived the lively art (c. 1000 CE) to spread the Gospel and word of God (and lure the masses to mass).

Church plays overflowed into the streets and spread all over Europe (1200-1400), performed by laymen, while lesser forms of entertainment sprang up, with secular themes, and early humanist  scholars translated ancient Roman plays , then mimicked them to establish the Neo-Classic Ideal.


As Protestants and Catholics fought each other and themselves and cities became warring states, church and state alike used plays as powerful platforms, prompting secular kings and queens to constrain religious content in favor of mundane plots and themes. Elizabeth I of England banned church plays in 1558, and barely thirty years later (c. 1590) Shakespeare showed up on the London stage.



Shakespeare died in 1616. Four years later Puritan Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock. Puritans religiously opposed all forms of pleasure, especially theatre, which they considered decadent and sinful. In 1642, sanctimonious Oliver Cromwell took control of England in and closed all theaters for 18 years, until the Restoration of Charles II.

English theatre bounded back with a flourish after the Restoration, and to this day most Brits know Shakespeare like the Bible. The Puritans, however, faced with retribution, fled across the sea to join their fellow Pilgrims in the New World—where there would be virtually no theatre for the next 200 years.

Meanwhile, in France, all over Europe, the lively art lived on, producing literary masterworks that remain in the repertoire to this day.

The Industrial Revolution
Once socially accepted in the US (early 1800’s), plays spread like wildfire; by 1900 every major city had at least one resident company, and the rails and waterways transported touring troupes—but the repertoire was trashy farce and moral melodrama, and the impetus was fame and fortune.

Meanwhile, Europe argued Neo-Classic vs Romance, dabbled with Symbol vs Natural, and settled on domestic Realism—until the Great War triggered futurist, expressionist, surrealist, dadaist, existential—anti-establishment—movements .

The 20th Century
The first great American playwright was Eugene O’Neill, who paved the way for the wave of dramatists that followed, whose plays have set the standard for world drama ever since; but by then the masses were attending motion pictures, watching television, and stage plays all but vanished from our lives.

The Digital Age
These days, for reasons ranging from the Pandorian Box of spectacular distractions we embrace to the astronomical price of seats, uninspired productions, and our deep-seated prejudices, Americans categorically reject dramatic art—despite the fact that since the 1930’s, American playwrights have ranked among the best in the world. The problem is, we only see them when they’re filmed.


The fact is, theatre and religion are one and the same—with one exception. Religion bows to a god who offers afterlife, while theatre leans to human beings here and now.

The fact is, democratic government was born in the Theatre of Dionysus.

The fact is, theatre is the one and only truly human art, revealing who we are, which leads to the third force.


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Reading Plays with Friends for Fun and Cultural Enrichment

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